The great revolution was the discovery of distillation that is attributed arab doctor Avicena, in the X Century. In distillation, water vapor passes through the vegetable material (leafs, flowers, resins, etc.) so that with the effect of heat.
Vapor then circulated through a streamer where it is chilled.

Steam destillator used for the production of our essential oils

This way it condenses, thus one can obtain the floral water in one side and the essential oil in another.Nowadays, distillation is the most used method in the production of essential oils.

Home destillation

Distillation only produces good results when big equipment is used and when it is done near the cultivation areas, since plants loose their aroma rapidly. Home distillation requires patience and the acceptance of an alchemist, since long hours of work are needed and a lot of raw material is required to produce only a little bit of essential oil.

For example, to distil approximately 500 ml of essential of cinnamon, you need more or less 70 kilograms of fresh cinnamon

Floral Waters (hydrosols)
As a result of distillation, essential oils and floral waters or hydrosols are obtained. Floral waters have similar properties as that of essential oils, even though they, of course, do not have the same concentration. Hydrosols have tonic properties for the skin, especially for the face.
Cold pressed
This is the simplest process that is applied to citrics, lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit and lime. The essential oil is obtained by pressing the peels of the fruits.
Some delicate flowers cannot handle the distillation method; this is why they are macerated in plates with cloth that has been previously impregnated with olive oil. Also, glass plates impregnated with pig grease are used. This process is known as enfleurage.
Solvent extraction
More modernly, extraction with chemical solvents is used, which has the disadvantage of leaving residues.
Extraction by supercitric CO2
The latest novelty is the extraction by supercitric CO2 (carbonic  anhydride). This gas is blended by pressure and temperature and has the advantage that it does not blend at all with the essential oil.
Infused oils
Even though recent archeological finds in Egypt and Italy make us suppose that distillation was known since Ancient times, one of the first ways of producing aromatic liquid substances where infused oils.
It is a simple process available for everyone: the maceration of plants and flowers in oil.

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